Polyglycerol polyricinoleates, polyglycerol esters of polycondensed fatty acids of castor oil
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Also known as 'polyglycerol esters of polycondensed fatty acids of castor oil' as it is produced from castor oil and glycerol esters (see E422).It is used to help reduce the viscosity of molten chocolate, so improving the fluidity and enabling thinner coatings. Also helps chocolate set where water is present e.g. chocolate ice creams. Often used in conjunction with Lecithin (E322).

Vegetarians should note that although industrial manufacturing based on propylene or sugar accounts for a large percentage of glycerol production it can be obtained as a by-product in making soap from animal and vegetable fats and oils.

Polyglycerol polyricinoleates (PGPR) are used, alone or in combination with soy lecithin, to improve the flow properties of molten chocolate and to reduce the amount of cocoa butter required (to reduce costs and maximise profits)

Mainly used in icings, toppings and in cake mixes (to control fat crystallisation). Can be found in low fat spreads and dressings and cocoa-based, chocolate confectionery. Also in spreadable fats having a fat content of 41% or less, similar spreadable products with a fat content of less than 10% fat , and dressings.